FilmsFolded

Essays on cinematic narrative. The focus is a set of dynamics collected under the concept of folding, a related system of techniques to model agency and causality.

Chopin

Published: 14 Mar 2014

My interest in Chopin is only stylistically related to the phenomenon of folding.

So much in history can be traced to a reaction against the constraints of logic. I deal with this professionally in modeling knowledge in a computer, but this problem has been with us for a few hundred years. It is somewhat unfairly linked to the scientific method, and this is fair enough. My history of noir, for instance conflates these limits of logic with the scientific method expressed in the Holmes detective novel.

But well before that, European politics and societal norms worked hard to be logical in matters of societal order, empire and economics. Designed cities, and the garden became notably anti natural. The closer music was to mathematically precise, the better.

The so-called romantic movement wasn’t so much an opposing philosophy, instead depended on the assumption of a surrounding mechanical universe. Within this clockworks could exist certain beings who reached beyond into a freedom from the order to let their passions breath.

These were the lovers and great artists of the time. The two could not be separated; passion was passion. And the state was not accidental, one had to spend life energy becoming and staying a romantic. A typical example would be consumed with the effort, profoundly attractive to women and highly sought by moneyed supporters. Chopin fit the bill, perhaps better than anyone.

Chopin wrote for himself to perform on solo piano. Today, his music is considered nearly impossible to perform as he did and the Chopin-centric competitions value what they assume to be emulations of his passion. My introduction to Chopin was through Artur Rubinstein, himself a consummate, passionate Pole. Dozens of affairs. many children, including two in his sixties.

I find his performances settling, inspiring and erotic. I consume them with patient hunger the way Chopin’s safe patrons must have, understanding but not quite achieving the dance. They often form a part of my visualization ritual.

Any art has its own folds and it would be strange if all of the expressions we have were not coordinated in some way.

Music has a direct role in this study; after all it is used in film as part of the cinematic vocabulary and can carry its own folds. But what about music 'by itself?' This note makes an observation on one characteristic of music that strikes me.

Frédéric Chopin (1810-49) is my favorite classical composer because he seems to have been the inventor of what is now called *rubato.*

It is a common enough concept in today's music, and likely goes as far back as music itself, but he was the first to integrate it into the his music in a formal way. Rubato is the technique of shifting individual notes from a standard, metronomic beat in order (usually) to convey emotion. One wouldn't even remark on it in today's popular music, nor even a modern performance of a pre-Chopin composition.

Chopin wrote piano music for himself to perform. The tradition of the era was 'romantic' music; a period of about a hundred years in the arts where passion and emotional depth were made first class citizens with the attempt to expand relatively sterile classical theories more human. The underlying idea — which is the basis of my relationship with art — is that there is a balance of theoretical dynamics and directed passion that makes the deepest impression on another soul. This underlying idea must be what art is, and it coincides with my affinity with two-sorted logics.XXX

We have recorded performances by Artur Rubinstein of Chopin's works, and these are widely considered the most like Chopin's. Of course, one would expect them to be the most emotionally affecting. (That is my feeling.) It would be a mistake to equate the formal structure, the composition, of the pieces with formal logic and the performance with the human situation, because he integrated the two at many levels.

First, he invented new types of compositions (the instrumental ballade) and radically expanded the notion of several existing forms: the étude, impromptu, mazurka, nocturne, polonaise, prélude, scherzo, sonata and waltz — basically all forms he used once an adult. Of these, the most affecting are the piano sonatas. These are solo pieces in several movements. They are deliberately poetic, but without reference to external forms, like dance, folk music or lullabies. The form by itself is the most abstract of those he used, the most devoid of externally referenced passion.

Within the sonata and the much simpler prelude, he chose themes that were amenable to mutation in a manner consistent with how his performance mutated the written music. The rubato when played reflected a relationship between the themes as developed and played with his left hand in more traditional classical style and those played by his right hand — taking flight. (Strangely, on his death a cast was made of his *left* hand, on view in Vienna with copies all over.) His lover, George Sand (also the lover of many artists in her life) is supposed to have remarked on how different were the caresses from the two hands.

The interplay is almost impossible to get right. Too little leaves the composition unmined. Unfortunately, the rigorous life of a professional pianist bleaches the core passions out of most, so this is common. Equally common is the other abuse where excess of rubato loses the technical power that provides the syringe to the brain. Some of this excess can be thrilling; Argentine pianist Martha Argerich performs Chopin with such erotic abandon that I cannot listen to her with others present.

Done as Rubinstein does, the right hand seems to dance in and among the upright stones of the left.

$In Film

Many films include Chopin pieces. I abandoned upkeep on my database of their occurrence after a few hundred because the mere appearance of Chopin in a film signifies little. The 'Funeral March,' used as a signifier, constitutes many of them. There are a couple websites XXX that keep track of this anyway.

Chopin is played to the German officer in 'The Pianist,' to save the performer's life. He is played by Jack Nicholson's character in 'Five Easy Pieces' as he begins his redemption. And Chopin provides the central sonata in Bergman's 'Autumn Sonata.' His music is central to two films on my list of 'fours' XXX: "Saddest Music in the World,' XXX and 'The Bishop Murder Case.' XXX

More interesting is consideration of what techniques in the cinematic vocabulary — the visual sector of it — correspond to what Chopin devised. I can think of two.

One of these is rather easy, since the edit establishes the rhythm of the film (as a sort of *left hand*) and there are so many other moving parts. One can easily see modulation in a master's editing, for instance in 'Gladiator' where the scenes end and begin just a little tiny bit before or after when we are trained for it; Crowe, whether he intuits this or is so directed, rushes or delays his speech in coordination (and sometimes contrast).

Also

hitchcock camera

$Modern Musicians

Van Morrison

Keith Jarrett

+++++

The Music

What makes the music special is the rubato.

The music is unique. Music by others in the tradition are intrinsically emotional, dramatic. Chopin’s work is generally mediative in composition. It sets up patterns that are more respected and manipulated than those of, say Beethoven or Shostakovich. These are remarkably complex, intellectually playful, and when performed competently are appreciated in those terms alone.

But the pieces were designed for a technique called rubato. Generally, the idea is to imply a regular rhythm and move your own expression before and after that with some emotional coherence. It is common today to have a vocalist move independently of the accompaniment for emotional effect.

Mozart was known for a similar rubato technique where the melody of the right hand moved more freely (and generally after) than the notes of the left hand. What Chopin did was more creative: each finger had its own agency, and emotional assignment. While it worked with the others at the level of the composition, each one looked for a way to emote with its coinhabitants in time.

This is remarkably like the scientific challenge I face: how can say individual molecules and cells act with their own passions and create systems that have powerful qualities that aren’t a simple sum of the parts.

He performed for 80 years and his later performances are even more emotive. One imagines recall of many tiny interactions with his lovers. His pianos were specially constructed to have an extraordinary stiff action, impossible for others to play. He needed it because his striking was forceful, and he needed the range to convey certain subtleties.

Some Other Musicians

I do find these qualities in two other musicians. Keith Jarrett is a jazz pianist, whose solo improvisations are popular. The notion of a mechanical framework is different in his case, because things move more languidly; a 40 minute session is needed. And he plays more heavily on expectation than Chopin’s reflections. But the dynamic is clearly the same, even to him practicing with Shostakovich’s preludes and fugues to center.

Van Morrison may surprise you as the other musician on the list. He works within a blues rock tradition that is very constrained. His approach is not much like the traditionalists; those work with delays where Morrison includes anticipatory catches. This music seems so calmly expectant some of it has been dubbed celtic space music.

Margaret Argerich deserves a mention. When very young, she won the international Chopin competition. Recordings made shortly after have been discovered and released. Where Chopin is spiritually erotic, she is nearly pornographic. I often get aroused. Where he is content with weaving through regimented norms, she bustles through with busy energy. These recordings matter to me, a woman with power, control and courage.

After this promiscuous period, she tried love, failed and lost magic. While she is still celebrated for her prowess, nothing matches these early performances.

The Music and Cinema

The music in film, plus the notions in a few movies.

Okay, what has that all to do with cinema? Film is fertile for these notions of emotive rubato. Film is all about rhythm, expectations and urge. It is also about performance imposed on constraining norms. Film differs in having two senses channeled rather than one, and by literally conveying story.

But I find it. And I find it particularly where two threads are superimposed, folded. A common example is the folded acting described elsewhere. In that case, you have a character presented as usual. This character is constrained by the story, script and a host of conventions. But a folded actress may present a related character or a related dimension in another level.

The differentiation between these two layers is a matter of emotive rubato. Once you know what to look for, you can see it. It all begins with Chopin, and is basically set by Rubinstein.

In Film

Many films include Chopin pieces. I abandoned upkeep on my database of their occurrence after a few hundred because the mere appearance of Chopin in a film signifies little. This site maintains the list better than I could. The Funeral March, used as a signifier, constitutes many of them.

Chopin is played to the German officer in The Pianist, to save the performer's life. He is played by Jack Nicholson's character in Five Easy Pieces as he begins his redemption. And Chopin provides the central sonata in Bergman's Autumn Sonata.

His music is also central to films on my list of fours:

  • The Bishop Murder Case
  • Saddest Music in the World

More interesting is consideration of what techniques in the cinematic vocabulary — the visual sector of it — correspond to what Chopin devised.

One of these is rather easy, since the edit establishes the rhythm of the film (as a sort of left hand) and there are so many other moving parts. One can easily see modulation in a master's editing, for instance in Gladiator where the scenes end and begin just a little tiny bit before or after when we are trained for it; Crowe, whether he intuits this or is so directed, rushes or delays his speech to coordinate (and sometimes contrast).

Some Facts

A short history of the man.

Frédéric Chopin (1810-49) invented new types of compositions (the instrumental ballade) and radically expanded the notion of several existing forms: the étude, impromptu, mazurka, nocturne, polonaise, prélude, scherzo, sonata and waltz. That is, everyform he touched as an adult, he reinvented. Of these, the most affecting are the piano sonatas, solo pieces in several movements. They are deliberately poetic, but without reference to external forms, like dance, folk music or lullabies. The form by itself is the most abstract of those he used, the most devoid of externally referenced passion.

Within the sonata and the much simpler prelude, he chose themes that were amenable to mutation in a manner consistent with how his performance mutated the written music. The rubato when played reflected a relationship between the themes as developed and played with his left hand in more traditional classical style and those played by his right hand — taking flight. (Strangely, on his death a cast was made of his left hand, on view in Vienna with copies all over.) His lover, George Sand (also the lover of other artists) is supposed to have remarked on how different were the caresses from the two hands.

The interplay is almost impossible to get right. Too little leaves the composition unmined. Unfortunately, the rigorous life of a professional pianist bleaches the core passions out of most performers. Equally common is the other abuse where excess of rubato loses the technical power that provides the syringe to the brain. Some of this excess can be thrilling; Argentine pianist Martha Argerich performs Chopin with such erotic abandon that I cannot listen to her with others present.

Done as Rubinstein does, the right hand seems to dance in and among the upright stones of the left.

Published during Chopin's lifetime with opus numbers

Op. 1, Rondo in C minor (1825)

Op. 2, Variations on "La ci darem la mano" from Mozart's opera Don Giovanni, in B-flat major (1827)

Op. 3, Introduction and Polonaise brillante for Cello and Piano in C major (1829)

Op. 4, Piano Sonata No. 1 in C minor (1828)

Op. 5, Rondo à la Mazur in F major (1826)

Op. 6, 4 Mazurkas (1830)

No. 1 in F-sharp minor
No. 2 in C-sharp minor
No. 3 in E major
No. 4 in E-flat minor

Op. 7, 5 Mazurkas (1830-1831)

No. 1 in B-flat major
No. 2 in A minor
No. 3 in F minor
No. 4 in A-flat major
No. 5 in C major

Op. 8, Trio for Violin, Cello and Piano in G minor (1829)

Op. 9, 3 Nocturnes (1830-1831)

No. 1 in B-flat minor
No. 2 in E-flat major
  • Letters to Father Jaakob (2009)
No. 3 in B major

Op. 10, 12 Études (1829-1832)

No. 1 in C major ("Waterfall") (1830)
No. 2 in A minor ("Chromatic") (1830)
No. 3 in E major ("Tristesse") (1832)
No. 4 in C-sharp minor ("Torrent") (1832)
No. 5 in G-flat major ("Black Key") (1830)
No. 6 in E-flat minor (1830)
No. 7 in C major ("Toccata") (1832)
No. 8 in F major ("Sunshine") (1829)
No. 9 in F minor (1829)
No. 10 in A-flat major (1829)
No. 11 in E-flat major ("Arpeggio") (1829)
No. 12 in C minor ("Revolutionary") (1831)

Op. 11, Concerto for Piano and Orchestra No. 1 in E minor (1830)

Op. 12, Variations brillantes on "Je vends des Scapulaires" from Hérold's Ludovic, in B-flat major (1833)

Op. 13, Fantasia on Polish Airs in A major (1828)

  • True Nature (2010)

Op. 14, Rondo à la Krakowiak in F major (1828)

Op. 15, 3 Nocturnes (1830-1833)

No. 1 in F major (1830-1831)
No. 2 in F-sharp major (1830-1831)
No. 3 in G minor (1833)

Op. 16, Rondo in E-flat major (1832)

Op. 17, 4 Mazurkas (1832-1833)

No. 1 in B-flat major
No. 2 in E minor
No. 3 in A-flat major
No. 4 in A minor

Op. 18, Grande valse brillante in E-flat major (1831)

Op. 19, Bolero in C major/A major (1833)

Op. 20, Scherzo No. 1 in B minor (1831)

Op. 21, Concerto for Piano and Orchestra No. 2 in F minor (1829-1830)

Op. 22, Andante spianato et grande polonaise brillante in E-flat major (the polonaise section orchestrated 1830-31; piano solo 1834)

Op. 23, Ballade No. 1 in G minor (1831-1835)

Op. 24, 4 Mazurkas (1834-1835)

No. 1 in G minor
No. 2 in C major
No. 3 in A-flat major
No. 4 in B-flat minor

Op. 25, 12 Études (1832-1836)

No. 1 in A flat major ("Aeolian Harp") (1836)
No. 2 in F minor ("Bees") (1836)
No. 3 in F major ("Horseman") (1836)
No. 4 in A minor ("Paganini") (1832-1834)
No. 5 in E minor ("Wrong Note") (1832-1834)
No. 6 in G-sharp minor ("Thirds") (1832-1834)
No. 7 in C-sharp minor ("Cello") (1836)
No. 8 in D-flat major ("Sixths") (1832-1834)
No. 9 in G-flat major ("Butterfly") (1832-1834)
No. 10 in B minor ("Octaves") (1832-1834)
No. 11 in A minor ("Winter Wind") (1834)
No. 12 in C minor ("Ocean") (1836)

Op. 26, 2 Polonaises (1834-1835)

No. 1 in C-sharp minor
No. 2 in E-flat minor

Op. 27, 2 Nocturnes (1835)

No. 1 in C-sharp minor
No. 2 in D-flat major

Op. 28, 24 Preludes (1836-1839)

No. 1 in C major ("Reunion") (1839)
No. 2 in A minor ("Presentiment of Death") (1838)
No. 3 in G major ("Thou Art So Like a Flower") (1838-1839)
No. 4 in E minor ("Suffocation") (1838)
No. 5 in D major ("Uncertainty") (1838-1839)
No. 6 in B minor ("Tolling Bells") (1838-1839)
No. 7 in A major ("The Polish Dancer") (1836)
No. 8 in F-sharp minor ("Desperation") (1838-1839)
No. 9 in E major ("Vision") (1838-1839)
No. 10 in C-sharp minor ("The Night Moth") (1838-1839)
No. 11 in B major ("The Dragonfly") (1838-1839)
No. 12 in G-sharp minor ("The Duel") (1838-1839)
No. 13 in F-sharp major ("Loss") (1838-1839)
No. 14 in E-flat minor ("Fear") (1838-1839)
No. 15 in D-flat major ("Raindrop") (1838-1839)
No. 16 in B-flat minor ("Hades") (1838-1839)
No. 17 in A-flat major ("A Scene on the Place de Notre-Dame de Paris") (1836)
No. 18 in F minor ("Suicide") (1838-1839)
No. 19 in E-flat major ("Heartfelt Happiness") (1838-1839)
No. 20 in C minor ("Funeral March") (1838-1839)
No. 21 in B-flat major ("Sunday") (1838-1839)
No. 22 in G minor ("Impatience") (1836-1839)
No. 23 in F major ("A Pleasure Boat") (1838-1839)
No. 24 in D minor ("The Storm") (1838-1839)

Op. 29, Impromptu No. 1 in A flat major (1837)

Op. 30, 4 Mazurkas (1836-1837)

No. 1 in C minor
No. 2 in B minor
No. 3 in D-flat major
No. 4 in C-sharp minor

Op. 31, Scherzo No. 2 in B-flat minor (1837)

Op. 32, 2 Nocturnes (1836-1837)

No. 1 in B major (1836-1837)
No. 2 in A-flat major (1836-1837)

Op. 33, 4 Mazurkas (1837-1838)

No. 1 in G-sharp minor
No. 2 in D major
No. 3 in C major
No. 4 in B minor

Op. 34, 3 Waltzes (1831-1838)

No. 1 in A-flat major (1835)
No. 2 in A minor (1831)
No. 3 in F major (1838)

Op. 35, Piano Sonata No. 2 in B-flat minor ("Funeral March") (1839)

Op. 36, Impromptu No. 2 in F-sharp major (1839)

Op. 37, 2 Nocturnes (1838-1839)

No. 1 in G minor (1838)
No. 2 in G major (1839)

Op. 38, Ballade No. 2 in F major (1836-1839)

Op. 39, Scherzo No. 3 in C-sharp minor (1839)

Op. 40, 2 Polonaises (1838-1839)

No. 1 in A major ("Military") (1838)
No. 2 in C minor (1838-1839)

Op. 41 4 Mazurkas (1838-1839)

No. 1 in E minor (1839)
No. 2 in B major (1838)
No. 3 in A-flat major (1839)
No. 4 in C-sharp minor (1839)

Op. 42, Waltz in A-flat major (1840)

Op. 43, Tarantella in A-flat major (1841)

Op. 44, Polonaise in F-sharp minor (1841)

Op. 45, Prelude in C-sharp minor (1841)

Op. 46, Allegro de concert in A major (1832-1841)

Op. 47, Ballade No. 3 in A-flat major (1840-1841)

Op. 48, 2 Nocturnes (1841)

No. 1 in C minor
No. 2 in F-sharp minor

Op. 49, Fantaisie in F minor (1841)

Op. 50, 3 Mazurkas (1841-1842)

No. 1 in G major
No. 2 in A-flat major
No. 3 in C-sharp minor

Op. 51, Impromptu No. 3 in G-flat major (1842)

Op. 52, Ballade No. 4 in F minor (1842)

Op. 53, Polonaise in A-flat major ("Heroic" or "Drum") (1842)

  • The Curious Case of Benjamin Button (2008)

Op. 54, Scherzo No. 4 in E major (1842)

Op. 55, 2 Nocturnes (1843)

No. 1 in F minor
No. 2 in E-flat major

Op. 56, 3 Mazurkas (1843)

No. 1 in B major
No. 2 in C major
No. 3 in C minor

Op. 57, Berceuse in D-flat major (1843)

Op. 58, Piano Sonata No. 3 in B minor (1844)

Op. 59, 3 Mazurkas (1845)

No. 1 in A minor
No. 2 in A-flat major
No. 3 in F-sharp minor

Op. 60, Barcarole in F-sharp major (1845-1846)

Op. 61, Polonaise-Fantaisie in A-flat major (1845-1846)

Op. 62, 2 Nocturnes (1846)

No. 1 in B major
No. 2 in E major

Op. 63, 3 Mazurkas (1846)

No. 1 in B major
No. 2 in F minor
No. 3 in C-sharp minor

Op. 64, 3 Waltzes (1846-1847)

No. 1 in D-flat major ("Minute Waltz")
No. 2 in C-sharp minor
No. 3 in A-flat major (c. 1840)

Op. 65, Sonata for Cello and Piano in G minor (1845-1846)

Without Opus Numbers

Note: Because different catalogue numbering systems have applied to the following works, they are ordered by year of publication.

1817: Polonaise in G minor, B. 1, KK IIa/1, S 1/1 (written 1817)

1826: 2 Mazurkas (G major, B flat major), B. 16, KK IIa/2-3, S 1/2 (1826)

1833: Grand Duo concertant for Cello and Piano in E (written jointly with Auguste Franchomme, B. 70, KK IIb/2, S 2/1 (1832)

1839: Variation No. 6 in E from Hexameron, B. 113, S 2/2 (1837)

1840: Trois nouvelles études (F minor, A flat major, D flat major), B. 130, KK IIb/3, S 2/3 (1839)

1841: Mazurka in A minor, Notre Temps, B. 134, KK IIb/4, S 2/4(1840)

1841: Mazurka in A minor, Émile Gaillard, B. 140, KK IIb/5, S 2/5 (1841)

1843: Contredanse in G flat major, B. 17. KK Anh Ia/4, A 1/4 (1826; doubtful)

Posthumously Published with Opus Numbers

Op. posth. 66, Fantaisie-Impromptu in C-sharp minor (1835)

Op. posth. 67, 4 Mazurkas (1835-1849)

No. 1 in G major (1835)
No. 2 in G minor (1849)
No. 3 in C major (1835)
No. 4 in A minor (1846)

Op. posth. 68, 4 Mazurkas (1827-1849)

No. 1 in C major (1829)
No. 2 in A minor (1827)
No. 3 in F major (1829)
No. 4 in F minor (1849) (Last Composition)

Op. posth. 69, 2 Waltzes (1829-1835)

No. 1 in A-flat major (1835)
No. 2 in B minor (1829)

Op. posth. 70, 3 Waltzes (1829-1841)

No. 1 in G-flat major (1833)
No. 2 in F minor (1841)
No. 3 in D-flat major (1829)

Op. posth. 71, 3 Polonaises (1825-1828)

No. 1 in D minor (1825)
No. 2 in B-flat major (1828)
No. 3 in F minor (1828)

Op. posth. 72, (1826-1827)

No. 1 Nocturne in E minor (1827)
No. 2 Funeral March in C minor (1827)
No. 3 3 Écossaises (1826)
No. 3a in D major
No. 3b in G major
No. 3c in D-flat major

Op. posth. 73, Rondo in C major (versions for solo piano and two pianos) (1828)

Op. posth. 74, 17 Polish Songs (1829-1847)

No. 1 The Wish (Życzenie) (1829)
No. 2 Spring (Wiosna) (1838)
No. 3 The Sad River (Smutna Rzeka) (1831)
No. 4 Merrymaking (Hulanka) (1830)
No. 5 What She Likes (Gdzie lubi) (1829)
No. 6 Out of My Sight (Precz z moich oczu) (1830)
No. 7 The Messenger (Poseł) (1830)
No. 8 Handsome Lad (Śliczny chłopiec) (1841)
No. 9 Melody (Melodia) (1847)
No. 10 The Warrior (Wojak) (1830)
No. 11 The Double-End (Dwojaki koniec) (1845)
No. 12 My Darling (Moja pieszczotka) (1837)
No. 13 I Want What I Have Not (Nie ma czego trzeba) (1845)
No. 14 The Ring (Pierścień) (1836)
No. 15 The Bridegroom (Narzeczony) (1831)
No. 16 Lithuanian Song (Piosnka litewska) (1831)
No. 17 Leaves are Falling, Hymn from the Tomb (Śpiew z mogiłki) (1836)

Posthumously Published without Opus Numbers

Note: Because different catalogue numbering systems have applied to the following works, they are ordered by year of publication.

1851: Variations in E major on the air "Der Schweizerbub", aka Introduction et Variations sur un lied Allemande in E, B. 14, KK IVa/4, P 1/4 (1826)

1856: Song Jakiez kwiaty, jakie wianki, in C major, B. 39, KK IVa/9, P 1/9 (1829)

1864: Polonaise in G sharp minor, B. 6, KK IVa/3, P 1/3 (1822)

1868: Waltz in E minor, B. 56, KK IV1/15, P 1/15 (1830)

1870: Polonaise in G flat, B. 36, KK IVa/8, P 1/8 (1829)

1870: Mazurka in C, B. 82, KK IVb/3, P 2/3 (1833)

1871: Waltz in E, B. 44, KK IVa/12, P 1/12 (1829)

1875: 2 Mazurkas (G major, B flat major), B. 16, KK. IIa/2-3, S 1/2 (1826; these are the original versions of these works; their revised versions were originally published in the year of their composition, 1826, without opus numbers)

1875: Mazurka in D, B. 31, KK IVa/7, P 1/7 (1829)

1875: Nocturne in C sharp minor, Lento con gran espressione, B. 49, KK IVa/16, P 1/16 (1830)

1879: Polonaise in B flat minor ("La gazza ladra"), B. 13, KK IVa/5, P 1/5 (1826)

1881: Variations in A: Souvenir de Paganini, B. 37, KK IVa/10, P 1/10 (1829)

1898: Fugue in A minor, B. 144, KK IVc/2, P 3/1 (1841-1842)

1902: Polonaise in A flat, B. 5, KK IVa/2, P 1/2 (1821)

1902: Waltz in A flat, B. 21, KK IVa/13, P 1/13 (1827)

1902: Waltz in E flat, B. 46, KK IVa/14, P 1/14 (1829-1830)

1909: Mazurka in B flat, B. 73, KK IVb/1, P 2/1 (1832)

1910: Mazurka in D major (Mazurek), B. 4, KK Anh. Ia/1, A 1/1 (1820)

1910: Song "Rêverie" (Dumka, Mist Before My Eyes), A minor, B. 132, KK IVb/9, P 2/9 (1840)

1910: Moderato in E (Album Leaf), B. 151, KK IVb/12, P 2/12 (1843)

1918: Prelude in A flat (ded. Pierre Wolff), B. 86, KK. IVb/7, P 2/7 (1834)

1930: Mazurka in A flat, B. 85, KK. IVb/4, P 2/4 (1834)

1930: Prelude and Andantino animato, in F major, KK Anh Ia/2-3, A 1/2-3 (doubtful)

1931: Cantabile in B flat, B. 84, KK IVb/6

1932: Waltz in F sharp minor, Valse mélancolique, KK Ib/7, A 1/7 (spurious)

1938: Largo in E flat, B. 109, KK. IVb/5

1938: Nocturne in C minor, B. 108, KK IVb/8, P 2/8 (1837)

1947: Polonaise in B flat, B. 3, KK IVa/1, P 1/1 (1817)

1948: Canon in F minor, B. 129b, KK IVc/1

1954: Song "Czary" (Enchantment), in D minor, B. 51, KK IVa/11, P 1/11 (1830; a facsimile version had been published in 1910)

1955: Variations in E major for flute and piano on the air "Non piu mesta" from Rossini's La Cenerentola, B. 9, KK Anh. Ia/5, A 1/5 (1824; spurious)

1955: "Sostenuto" (aka Klavierstuck; Waltz) in E flat, B. 133, KK IVb/10, P 2/10 (1840)

1955: Waltz in A minor, B. 150, KK IVb/11, P 2/11 (1843)

1965: Introduction, Theme and Variations on a Venetian Air, in D major, for piano 4-hands, B.12a, KK IVa/6 (1826)

1968: Bourrée No. 1 in G major, B. 160b/1, KK VIIb/1, D 2/1 (1848)

1968: Bourrée No. 2 in A major, B. 160b/2, KK VIIb/2, D 2/2 (1846)

?: Galop A flat (Galop Marquis), KK IVc/13, P 2/13 (1846)

?: Nocturne in C sharp minor (Nocturne oubliée), KK Anh Ia/6, A1/6 (spurious)

?: Introduction, Theme and Variations in D On a Theme by Thomas Moore, P 1/6 (1826)

?: Mazurka in D, P 2/2 (1832)

?: Klavierstuck in E flat, P 2/5 (1837)

?: Klavierstuck in B flat, P 2/6 (1834)

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